by jessica (biofertilizer forums)
Biofertilizer is one of the best modern tools for agriculture. It is a gift of our modern agricultural science. Biofertilizers are applied in the agricultural field as a replacement to our conventional fertilizers. Conventional fertilizers contain compost; household wastes and green manure. Those are not as effective as chemical fertilizers. So farmers often try to use chemical fertilizers in the field for crop development. But obviously the chemical fertilizers are not environment friendly. They are responsible for water, air and soil pollution and can spread cancer causing agents. Moreover, they may destroy the fertility of the soil in a long run. Scientists have developed Biofertilizers to prevent pollution and to make this world healthy for everybody in a natural way.
Biofertilizer contains microorganisms which promote the adequate supply of nutrients to the host plants and ensure their proper development of growth and regulation in their physiology. Living microorganisms are used in the preparation of Biofertilizers. Only those microorganisms are used which have specific functions to enhance plant growth and reproduction.
There are different types of microorganisms which are used in the biofertilizers. Some are capable of nitrogen fixation such as Azotobacter, Blue green algae Rhizobium and Azospirillum. Rhizobium is used to increase the capacity of nitrogen fixation in the leguminous plants. Azotobacter are used as Biofertilizers for the development of various vegetable plants such as mustard, maize, Wheat, cotton etc. Azospirillum is applied in the millets, sorghum, sugarcane, maize and wheat field. Nostoc, Tolypothrix, Anabaena, and Aulosira are known as blue green algae. Anabaena and Azolla fix atmospheric nitrogen and enrich the soil fertility.
Phosphate solublizing bacteria are also developed as Biofertilizers. Pseudomonas putida, Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 etc. are the examples of phosphate solublizing bacteria. Their major work is to solubilize phosphates from any sources of organic and inorganic both. Those phosphates are taken as nutrients by plants.
Microorganism converts complex nutrients into simple nutrients for the availability of the plants. Biofertilizer containing those microorganisms can play a great role in crop improvement. Crop yield can be increased by 20-30% if Biofertilizers are used properly. Biofertilizers can also protect plants from soil born diseases to a certain degree.
Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi is often used as Biofertilizer. It is widely found in both aquatic and desert soil environments. VAM provides significant amount of nutrients to the plants such as copper, zinc, phosphorus and sulphur by making their widely extended hyphal network on the upper or lower side of the soil layer. VAM is commercially used in the fields of India.
Microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi algae etc. are commercially prepared as Biofertilizers. Those Biofertilizers are feasible and reliable for almost every crop field considering their costs and Eco friendliness rather than chemical fertilizers.